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Sunday, February 02, 2020

Charter of the Rights of Nations

Charter of the Rights of NationsInscribed on a clay cylinder in cuneiformdiscovered in 1879 now in The British Museum, London.
After victory over Babylonia, Cyrus The Great presented himself not as a conqueror, but a liberator and the legitimate successor to the crown. He took the title of "King of Babylon and King of the Land". Cyrus had no thought of forcing conquered people into a single mould, and had the wisdom to leave unchanged the institution of each kingdom he attached to the Persian Crown. In 537 BC he allowed more than 40,000 Jews to leave Babylon and return to Palestine.
He also declared the first Charter of Human Rights known to mankind, which is written on a clay cylinder:
"I am Cyrus, king of the world, great king, mighty king, king of Babylon, king of the land of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four quarters, son of Cambyses, great king, king of Anshan, grandson of Cyrus, great king, king of Anshan, descendant of Teispes, great king, king of Anshan, progeny of an unending royal line, whose rule Bel and Nabu cherish, whose kingship they desire for their hearts' pleasures.
When I, well-disposed, entered Babylon, I established the seat of government in the royal palace amidst jubilation and rejoicing. Marduk, the great God, caused the big-hearted inhabitants of Babylon I sought daily to worship him. My numerous troops moved about undisturbed in the midst of Babylon.
I did not allow any to terrorize the land of Sumer and Akkad. I kept in view the needs of Babylon and all its sanctuaries to promote their well-being. The citizens of Babylon... I lifted their unbecoming yoke. Their dilapidated dwellings I restored. I put an end to their misfortunes.
At my deeds Marduk, the great Lord, rejoiced, and to me, Cyrus, the king who worshipped, and to Cambyses, my son, the offspring of my loins, and to all my troops, he graciously gave his blessing, and in good spirit is before him we/glorified/exceedingly his high divinity.
All the kings who sat in the throne rooms, throughout the four quarters, from the Upper to the Lower Sea, those who dwelt in ... all the kings of the West Country who dwelt in tents, brought me their heavy tribute and kissed my feet in Babylon. From ... to the cities of Ashur and Susa, Agade, Eshnuna, the cities of Zamban, Meurnu, Der, as far as the region of the land of Gutium, the holy cities beyond the Tigris whose sanctuaries had been in ruins over a long period, the Gods whose abode is in the midst of them. I returned to the places and housed them in lasting abodes. I gathered together all their inhabitants and restored to them their dwellings. The Gods of Sumer and Akkad whom Nabonidus had, to the anger of the Lord of the Gods, brought into Babylon, I at the bidding of Marduk, the great Lord made to dwell in peace in their habitations, delightful abodes.
May all the gods whom I have placed within their sanctuaries address a daily prayer in my favour before Bel and Nabu, that my days may long, and may they say to Marduk my Lord, May Cyrus the King who reveres thee, and Cambyses his son ..."

Language: Akkadian
Medium: clay cylinder
Size: 23 cm long11 cm wide
Length: 40+ lines of writing(although broken)
Date: 538 BCE
Cyrus's reign: 557–529 BCE
Place of Discovery: Nineveh, Iraq
Date of Discovery: 1879
Discoverer: Hormuzd Rassam
Current Location: British Museum
Inventory number: BM WAA 90920(BM = British Museum;WAA = Western Asiastic Antiquities

Wednesday, December 28, 2011

Loose Indian Diamonds

Loose Indian Diamonds
In total, there are thousands of loose diamonds on display in the treasury. Many of these diamonds were brought from India by Nader Shah. It is assumed that these diamonds were mined during the Mughol dynasty in India. Of the thousands of diamonds, only three have a verifiable history: the Darya-e Noor ("Sea of Light"), the Noor-ol-Ain which in now incorporated in a tiara, and the Taj Mah diamond which is shown here on the lower left. It weighs 115 cts. 

The other three loose diamonds shown here are 72.5 cts., 54.5 cts., 47.5 cts., and 54.35 cts. The one on the top left was probably cut from an even larger diamond. 

Royal Dish Cover

Royal Dish Cover
Since the royal kitchens were far removed from the royal dining room, dish covers were needed to keep the bowls of food warm, and to make sure no one put poison in the King's food. The particular dish cover seen in this picture is only one of the many jewel-studded dish covers in the treasury. They are all shaped the same, with a broad lip that covered the dish, and a dome-shaped center which acted as a handle. The dish cover is made of solid gold. Eight pearls surrounding a diamond decorate the very top of the dish cover. The rest of item is studded with emeralds, spinels, diamonds and rubies. 

The diameter of the dish cover is 19 cm. and its height is 10 cm. The largest four rubies are 12 cts. each, the largest emerald is 30 cts., and the largest spinel is 25 cts. 

Tuesday, December 27, 2011

The Noor-ol-Ain Tiara

The Noor-ol-Ain Tiara
The centerpiece of this tiara is the Noor-ol-Ain diamond, which is one of the largest pink diamonds in the world. The diamond may have been brought from India, along with the Sea of Light diamond. The diamond is set in platinum, and is surrounded by pink, clear and yellow diamonds. The Noor-ol-Ain is a brilliant cut, almost tear shaped diamond of approximately 60 cts.; the other diamonds range from 14 to 19 cts. each. 

The tiara was designed by Harry Winston for the occasion of the Empress Farah's wedding to the the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, in 1958. 

Emerald Display Case

Emerald Display Case
This display case contains a number of items, mostly consisting of emeralds. A short sword, called a yataghan is in the center of the lower shelf, which has a handle made of ivory, and a scabbard encrusted with emeralds. It is 73 cm. long and was a gift from Reza Gholi Khan to Naser o-Din Mirza, prior to his coronation as Nasseridin Shah. 

Above the sword, there are a couple of epaulets which are covered with over 300 diamonds, and large emeralds. They are seen worn by Nasseridin Shah in a portrait photograph which was taken in the Forty Columns (Chehel Sotoon) Palace in Isfahan. There are also a number of pins, brooches and other items of emerald on the lower shelf. 

The upper shelf contains hunreds of loose emeralds, as well as a panel displaying 13 large emerald rings. 

The "Iranian Yellows"

The "Iranian Yellows"
These African diamonds were acquired by Nasseridin Shah on his third trip to Europe in 1889, and are collectively known as the "Iranian Yellows." 

There are a number of collections of large diamonds on display in the treasury, however due to security concerns, the largest of the diamonds in the collection are not pictured here. 

The largest diamond shown here is 135 cts., while the largest loose diamond in this particular collection is 152 cts. Three other diamonds shown here are 120 cts. each. 

A list of 23 diamonds known as the Iranians, the stones are numbered in order of largest to smallest. 
The list reads as follows: 

01 - 152.16 carats; rectangular old brilliant; silver cape
02 - 135.45 carats; high cushion brilliant; cape
03 - 123.93 carats; high cushion brilliant; silver cape
04 - 121.90 carats; multi-faceted octahedron; cape
05 - 114.28 carats; high cushion brilliant; silver cape
06 - 86.61 carats; rounded triangular brilliant; cape
07 - 86.28 carats; irregular Mogul cut; silver cape
08 - 78.96 carats; high cushion brilliant; cape
10 - 75.00 carats; pendeloque brilliant; silver cape
11 - 75.00 carats; pendeloque brilliant; silver cape
12 - 72.84 carats; irregular pear shape; champagne
13 - 65.65 carats; rectangular brilliant, cape
14 - 60.00 carats; cushion brilliant; yellow
15 - 57.85 carats; round brilliant; silver cape
16 - 57.15 carats; cushion brilliant; silver cape
17 - 56.19 carats; cushion brilliant; silver cape
18 - 66.57 carats; cushion brilliant; silver cape
19 - 54.58 carats; irregular oval Mogul cut; colorless
20 - 54.35 carats; high cushion brilliant; peach
21 - 53.50 carats; high cushion brilliant; silver cape
22 - 51.90 carats; elliptical Mogul cut; colorless
23 - 38.18 carats; multi-faceted trapezoid cut; colorless

The Naderi Throne

The Naderi Throne
There are three thrones located in Tehran. The Sun Throne (also known as the Peacock Throne) and the Marble Throne both consist of a large, raised platform upon which the King would kneel. 

The third throne, pictured here, is known as the Naderi throne. Chair-like thrones like this were used in ancient Iran by Achaemenid dynasty in the 5th century BC, as well as the 17th century Safavid dynasty. 

Historians believe that Nader Shah, upon returning from his campaigns in India in 1739, brought nine jewelled thrones in addition to the Mughol Peacock Throne to Iran. It is further reported by Malcom (History of Persia, vol. II, p.37) that Nader Shah was so fond of the famous Peacock Throne that he had an exact duplicate made, using other gems from the treasury. However, today there is no trace of any of these thrones, and historians unanimously agree that they were destroyed after the death of Nader Shah in 1747. 

The Naderi throne seen above can be taken apart into 12 separate sections. It was intended to be portable, to be carried along when the King moved to his summer residences. 

The throne is constructed of wood, covered with gold, and encrusted with jewels. The history of this throne is not well known. Even its name is confusing. This particular throne has verses written on it which attribute it to Fathali Shah. Diaries written by travellers who visited Fathali Shah's court at the time also mention a throne such as this one, though the throne may have been refurbished by Nasseridin Shah. So why is it called the Naderi throne if it is not related to Nader Shah? The answer is the the term "Nader" also means "rare" or "unique" in the Persian language. Thus, this isn't Nader's Throne, rather the name refers to the fact that the throne is unique or rare. 

The height of the throne is approximately 225 cm. Among the 26,733 jewels covering the throne, there are four very large spinels on the backrest, the largest of which is 65 cts.; there are also four very large emeralds on the backrest too, the largest of which is approximately 225 cts. The largest ruby on the throne is 35 cts. 

The designs which can be seen on the throne include a peacock tail on the backrest, ducks, dragons, leaves and tree branches. A rather tame-looking lion rests on the front panel of the footstool. 

Saturday, December 24, 2011

The Empress's Crown

The Empress's Crown
Once Muhammad Reza Shah placed the Pahlavi crown on his own head during his coronation ceremony in 1967, he placed this crown on the head of his wife, the Empress Farah. Until that date, the wives of Persian monarchs were not crowned, and so it became necessary to design a new crown for the occasion. That honor was bestowed on the French jewellers, Van Cleef & Arpel. 

In accordance with tradition, the gems used in this crown were selected from loose gems in the treasury. The crown is made of green velvet, and white gold. It has more than 38 emeralds, 105 pearls, 34 rubies, 2 spinels, and 1,469 diamonds. The total weight of the crown is 1,481 grams. The largest emerald is located in the center of the sunburst on the front of the crown, and weighs approximately 91.32 cts. The two largest spinels are approximately 83 cts., and the largest pearl is approximately 22 mm. long. 

The Sea of Light Diamond (Darya-e Noor)

The Sea of Light Diamond "Darya-e Noor"
One of the largest diamonds in the world, this pink diamond and the Koh-e Noor (Mountain of Light) diamond were both brought back from India by Nader Shah in 1739. After the death of Nader Shah, Ahmad Shah Durrani took the Koh-e Noor to Afghanistan, where it passed onto Shah Shuja. He, in turn, was defeated by Ranjit Singh, the Lion of the Punjab. Eventually, it fell into the hands of the East India Company, which presented it to Queen Victoria. The Koh-e Noor is now incorporated in the Queen Mother's crown. The Koh-e Noor is said to bear a curse since all the male owners of the Kohi Noor suffered terrible fates. 

This Darya-e Noor (Sea of Light) diamond, however, has a different story. 

After Nader Shah's death, the Darya-e Noor was inherited by Shahrokh Mirza, his grandson. It then came into the possession of Alam Khan Khozeimeh, and later, Lotfoli Khan Zand, a member of Iran's Zand Dynasty. 

Agha Mohammad Khan, cruel founder of Qajar dynasty, defeated the Zands, and so it came into the possession of the Qajars. 

Fathali Shah Qajar had his name inscribed on one facet. Later, Nasseridin Shah Qajar believed that that this diamond was one of the gems decorating the crown of Cyrus the Great, so he often wore it on an armband. When armbands fell from royal fashion, he wore it as brooch. On occasion, the gem would be left in the care of high personages of the land, as a sign of honor, though it was eventually kept hidden in the Golestan Palace treasury museum until Mozzafaridin Shah's time, when he wore it as a hat decoration while visiting Europe in 1902. 

Reza Shah, the founder of the Pahlavi dynasty, wore it as a decoration on his military hat during his coronation in 1926, and it was used in Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi's coronation ceremony in 1967. 

There is no doubt that the diamond was taken from the Golkandeh mines of southern India. In 1965, a Canadian team which was conducting research on the Imperial jewels concluded that this Darya-e Noor may have been part of a large pink diamond which was incorporated in the throne of the Moghul emporor Shah Jehan and described in the journal of the French jeweller Tavernier in 1642, who called it the "Diamanta Grande Table" in his journal. This diamond may have been cut into two pieces; the larger part is the Sea of Light, and the smaller part of is believed to be the Noor-ol Ein diamond which is presently incorporated in a tiara in Iranian imperial jewel collection. 

Including the frame, it is 7.2 cm. high and 5.3 cm. wide. It is believed to weigh between 182 to 186 cts. Fathali Shah's name is inscribed on one facet.

The Emerald Belt

The Emerald Belt
This belt is woven of gold and can be seen in photographs of Nasseridin Shah Qajar from the second half of the 19th century. The belt band is 119 cm. and was therefore probably made for Nasseridin Shah, or his father, Mohammad Shah. It could not have been built for Fathali Shah, who was known to have a narrow waist. 

The oval-shaped emerald on the beltbuckle is surrounded by diamonds, and has been estimated to be 5 cm. tall and weigh 175 cts. It may have been previously used as part of another decoration. Not much is known of the history of the gem, but for one reference from the court of Jahangir, the Mughul Emperor of India, dated 1616. It could have been brought to Iran following Nader Shah's conquest of Delhi. 

The same belt band was used on the occasion of Reza Shah Pahlavi's coronation, but a different band was used on the occasion of the coronation of his son, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, the last Shah. 

Emerald and Diamond Tiara

Emerald and Diamond Tiara
Not much is known about this tiara. Its basic design is of a sunburst, with a 25 ct. pink spinel in the center. Each ray ends in a diamond blossom with a single pearl or emerald. The emeralds have holes in them which are covered with small diamonds. The holes suggest that the emeralds were previously used in other pieces. The largest emerald is 20 cts. 

The design of this tiara was more commonly used in aigrettes in the second half of the 19th century, and so the origins of this tiara may be attributed to that time. Height: 7.2 cm. 

Friday, December 23, 2011

Nader Shah's Shield

Nader Shah's Shield
Nader Shah carried this shield into battle during this campaigns in India. It is assumed that the gems were added to it at a later date in his honor. His bow, which is still in the Golestan palace, bears no adornments other than a layer of varnish. 

The shield is supposedly made of rhinoceros hide, and has a diameter of 46 cm. It is covered with spinels, emeralds, diamonds, and rubies. Even the edge of the shield, which is not visible in the picture, is studded with emeralds. The center spinel is one of the largest in the world, weighing 225 cts. The four emeralds surrounding the center spinel cover screw holes that attach straps to the back of the shield, allowing the Shah to securely hold it during battle. 

The largest emerald on the shield weighs 140 cts. Most of the diamonds range from 6 to 8 cts. 

Water Decanter and Basin

Water Decanter and Basin
This water decanter and basin were used to wash the hands of the Shah and his guests prior to and after meals. According to accounts by 17th and 18th century French and English travellers, the water was usually warm and scented with rosewater. One servant would pour the water over the diner's hands by tilting the decanter, while another servant held the basin beneath his hands to catch the water. The custom was common throughout the country and among all classes, so a basin and water decanter could be found in practically every household. Of course, few would have been as ornate. This particular water decanter and basin were carried by the Shah's entourage, along with his slippers, his sword, mace and staff, his waterpipe and his tobacco humidifier. 

The basin is 10.5 cm. high, 29.5 cm. in diameter, and weighs 1870 grams. It is made of solid gold, decorated with enamel and emeralds. The top of the basin is made like a sieve, designed to prevent any water from splashing out. The largest emerald on the basin is 25 cts. 

The decanter is 42.5 cm. high and weighs 4224 grams and is also made of solid gold. It is encrusted with emeralds, rubies, pearls, and spinels. The largest ruby (which is not visible in the picture) is 22 cts. and the largest emerald is 30 cts. 

Hat Decoration

Hat Decoration
While this may look like a woman's tiara, it is actually a decoration which Fathali Shah often wore on a tall black woolskin hat. It can be clearly seen on a number of minature paintings of Fathali Shah, usually holding two white egret feathers. 

The gem stones on this item consist of spinels, rubies, and diamonds, mounted on gold with a silver frame. Total height: 13.5 cm. The largest diamond is 10 cts., the largest spinel is 50 cts. 

Farah's favorite Tiara

Farah's favorite Tiara
This tiara was also designed by Harry Winston, the New York jeweller, for the occasion of the marriage of Empress Farah and Reza Shah Pahlevi in 1958. It was considered to be Farah's favorite tiara, since she was often seen wearing it on formal occasions, such as her on visit to the United States and Canada in 1965. 

The lower band containing diamonds which is shaped like a heart, is built of platinum. There are two rows of yellow, pink and clear diamonds on top of it. There are seven large emeralds framed by diamonds on very top of the tiara. 

The gems used in this tiara are a combination of the old and new. The brilliant-cut diamonds were probably re-cut in the 19th century from loose Indian diamonds which were in the treasury. The emeralds are probably from South America, though they were cut sometime before Nader Shah's campaign in India. The diamonds surrounding the emeralds are probably from South Africa. 

The largest emerald, located in the center of the top row, is 65 cts. and the smallest ones on the ends of the row are 10 cts. each. The two largest diamonds are approximately 15 cts. each. 

Monday, December 05, 2011

The Royal Sword

The Royal Sword
Also known as the Shahi Sword, it was a present to Nasseridin Shah from Amin-o'Sultan, his prime minister. Before his assassination, Amin-o'Sultan served in the court of a number of Kings in that capacity. However, he wasn't as well appreciated by the common folk. Through his various posts, which included the Minister of the Interior and the Minister of the Treasury and Customs, he managed to accumulate sufficient wealth to afford such presents. 

Though the picture is only of the sword's handle and hilt, the scabbard is entirely encrusted with approximately 3000 jewels of similar quality. According to an inscription which appears on the sword, it was made in 1306 (lunar calendar) by Mirza Ali Nagi. However, the sword was not presented to the King until six years later, around 1894 or 1895 AD. 

This sword was worn by Mohammad Reza Shah during his coronation in 1967. 

Kiani Crown

Kiani Crown
The Kiani Crown was used during the Qajar dynasty. Reza Shah, the founder of the Pahlavi dynasty, had his own crown designed but the Kiani crown was present during his coronation. 

The crown itself is made of red velvet which has thousands of gems set onto it. Fathali Shah is often shown in paintings wearing a similar crown - it is not known whether there were a number of crowns in use at the time which looked similar, or whether the artists simply portrayed the same crown in different ways. 

The Kiani crown has about 1800 pearls sown onto it, each from 7 to 9 mm. in diameter. There are approximately 300 emeralds set on the crown, the largest of which is about 80 cts. There are also about 1800 rubies and spinels on the crown, the largest of which is 120 cts. The largest diamond is 23 cts. 

The total height of the crown is 32 cm. without the aigrette, and the total width is 19.5 cm. 

The Pahlavi Crown

The Pahlavi Crown
This crown was used by Reza Shah, the founder of the Pahlavi dynasty, in his coronation on 25 April 1926. His son, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran, also used the crown in his coronation on 26 Oct. 1967. 

The crown was designed and built by a group of Iranian jewellers, under the supervision of Haj Serajeddin, the famous jeweller who had been in the employ of the Amir of Bokhara and had later emigrated from the Soviet Union to Iran. The stones were selected from loose stones in the treasury. 

The crown made of red velvet, gold, and silver. It has a total height of 29.8 cm. and has a width of 19.8 cm. It weighs 2,080 grams. The are 3,380 diamonds employed on the crown, totalling 1,144 cts. The largest is a brilliant-cut yellow diamond of 60 cts. which is located in the center of the front jewel sunburst. There are also 369 perfectly-matching natural pearls in three rows on the crown. Of the 5 emeralds, totalling 200 cts., the largest is approximately 100 cts. The largest sapphire is 20 cts. 

The design of the crown incorporates a motif of the Sassanid dynasty, which ruled over the Persian Empire from the 3rd through the 7th centuries AD. 

Jewel-Studded Globe

Jewel-Studded Globe
The most magnificent globe in existence, it has a total height of 110 cm. and a diameter of 45 cm. and is covered with over 51 thousand gemstones. The seas and oceans are shown with emeralds. Land masses are mostly displayed in rubies and spinels. Iran, Britain, France, and parts of South Asia are shown in diamonds. The base is constructed of wood, covered with a layer of gold. Approximately 35 kilograms of pure gold is used in the globe. 

According to legend, Nasseridin Shah (1848-1896) ordered the construction of the globe to help keep track of the loose gemstones in the treasury. 

The largest ruby used in the globe is approximately 75 ct. The largest spinel is approximately 110 cts. The largest emerald is approximately 175 cts., the largest sapphire is approximately 34 cts, and the largest diamond is approximately 15 cts. 

A section of Jewel-Studded Globe

Peacock Throne(Sun Throne)

Peacock Throne(Sun Throne)

SunThrone.jpgDuring the reign of Fath-Ali Shah and by his order, a great throne was made under the supervision of Nezamoldoleh Mohammad Hossein Khan Sadr Esfahani, the governor of Isfahan. Using gold and the loose stones of the treasury. (Early 19th century). As a design of sun encrusted with precious stones was used at the top of the throne, it became famous as the “Sun Throne”. After the marriage of Fath-AliShah with Tavous Tajodoleh, due to her name, the throne was named “Peacock Throne”. Some Iranians thought that the above throne was the same brought from India but according to the definition of Tavernier from “Peacock Throne” and their own gatherings they came to the conclusion that it can not be the genuine “Peacock Throne.” In order to confirm this view, they discussed the matter with Nasser-ed-din Shah and at last became sure that this “Peacock Throne” was constructed by the order of Fath-Ali Shah and was named after his favorite wife Tavous Khanoum or Lady Peacock as “Peacock Throne”.
After the death of Fath-Ali Shah and some years later, as Nasser-ed-din Shah loved jewels, ordered to repair the throne by making some small changes in it. Therefore, some panels were added to the throne, depicting verses, which confirm the repayment of the throne by Nasser-ed-din Shah. The verses are in blue enamel on a golden background. The verses are arranged very regularly and reveal the fact that is added to the throne during its repayment. The peacock throne was kept in Golestan Place until 1360 (1981 AD). On 17/6/1360 (6th September 1981) the throne was delivered to the Treasury of the National Jewels located in the Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran, to be kept in a place that it has similarity with the other pieces of the collection due to its rich accumulation of jewels. (Subject of the law approved in 1316 = 1927 AD).

The Persian Empire, about 500 B.C.

The Persian Empire, about 500 B.C.

Thursday, December 01, 2011

Globe of Jewels

Globe of Jewels

This Globe of Jewels was made in 1869 AD by order of Nasser-ed-din Shah. A group of Iranian craftsmen, ender the supervision of Ebrahim Massihi, made this globe using the loose stones of the Treasury. The net gold used in this Globe is 34.00 kilograms and the total weight of the stones is 3,656 grams. The total number of stones used is 51,366 pieces. Finding the different countries can be difficult among the sparkle of the gems, because the skill of the craftsmen was more in jewellery making than in geography. The oceans and seas are identified in emeralds and lands are shown in rubies. Southeast Asia, Iran, England and France are specified with diamonds. India is shown in pale rubies. Central and South Africa are shown in sapphires. The equator as well as other geographical lines is in diamonds and rubies.The diameter of the Globe is about 66 centimeters. The stand is of gold and studded with gems.

Kiani Crown

Kiani Crown

Crown of Fath-Ali Shah Qajar known as “Kiani Crown” and set with diamonds. Emeralds, rubies, and pearls. The final red stone is Aurangzib spinel. This crown was made during the reign of Fath-Ali Shah, and was used by succeeding kings. It is the first crown made in this shape after the Sassanid dynasty.

Nadir Aigrette

Nadir Aigrette

The Nadir Aigrette set with diamonds and emeralds. The central emerald is cabochon and of a very good color. 3-drop emeralds hang from the aigrette. There are 7 diamond-studded plumes on top of this aigrette. At the base of two of these plumes, there are 2 flowers and at the ends, 2 emeralds drops. On both sides of the central emerald and below the crescent, there are flags, drums, cannons, and spears. The tri-colored flags have pale rubies and emeralds. The whole aigrette is set with very good, rose cut diamonds. Reza Khan Pahlavi often used this aigrette, which weights 781 carats.

Crown Of Pahlavi

PahlaviCrown.jpgCrown used by Reza Khan and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. This crown is made of gold and silver, and decorated with diamonds, emeralds, sapphires and pearls. The fabric of the crown is red velvet. On the 4 sides of the crown are battlement designs and also sunbursts on the four panels, totally set in diamonds. The general design is in the style of the crown of the Sassanid kings (226-651 AD). Inside the front sun design, there is a very large yellow diamond. The total number of the precious stones set in this crown is as follows:
Diamonds: 3,380 pieces 1,144 carats
Emeralds: 5 pieces 199 carats
Sapphires: 2 pieces 19 carats
Pearls: 368 pieces, perfectly matching
Total weight of the crown is 2,080 grams.
The crown used during the coronation of the Qajar Kings, was the Kiani Crown, but Reza Khan Pahlavi was not inclined to use it. In 1925 AD, a group of Iranian jewelers, under the supervision of Haj Serajeddin (the famous jeweler who had been jeweler to the Amir of Bokhara, and had emigrated from Russia to Iran), undertook to make this crown, using selected stones from the Treasury. This crown was used in the coronation of Reza Pahlavi, held on April 25, 1926 AD, and in the coronation of Mahmmad Reza Pahlavi on October 26, 1967 AD.

Darya-i-Nour Diamond

DariaNour.jpgThe famous Darya-i-Nur or Sea of light is the largest pink diamond of the world and takes the first place among the diamonds in the National Treasury of Iran. This famous diamond along with its mate, the Kooh-i-Nur, or Mountain of Light, perhaps due to similarity of names, has always come together in history, although there is no similarity in cut or color between these two diamonds. Both of these stones were in the possession of Nadir Shah. After his death, Ahmad Shah Durrani took Kooh-i-Nur ti Afghanistan. After Ahmad Shah, it passed on to Shah Shuja, and after the defeat of Shah Shuja by Ranjit Singh the Lion of the Punjab, it passed into his possession. Later East India Company obtained it and presented it as a gift to Queen Victoria. It is presently in the Queen Mother’s Crown in England.
The Darya-i-Nur diamond was inherited by Shahrokh Mirza, the grandson of Nadir Shah. It then came into the possession of Amir Alam Khan Khozeimeh, and later, Lotfaio Khan Zand. When Lotfali Khan Zand was defeated by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar, this diamond came into the treasury of the Qajar kings. Nasser-ed-din Shah believed that this diamond was one of the gems decorating the crown of Cyrus (558 to 529 BC), and was very fond of it. He wore it as an armband, aigrette or as a brooch. The maintenance of Darya-i-Nur was a high, special honor bestowed upon high-ranking personages. Darye-i-Nur later entered the Treasury of National Jewels of Iran. The weight of Darya-i-Nur is approximately 182 carats, and its colors are pale pink --- one of the rare colors for diamonds. The frame is set with 457 diamonds and 4 rubies. In 1965, during the research by a Canadian team on the National Jewels, an interesting point was revealed. The famous French jeweler and traveler, Tavernier, mentions in his book, that he has seen a large, pink diamond weighing 242 carats, in the East, in 1642. he named it “Diamonda Grande Table”. The color and size of this diamond caught the attention of this Canadian team, and they believed that Darya-i-Nur and Nur-ol-Eyn were originally one stone, that later got spilt into two stones, part becoming the Darya-i-Nur, and part the 60 carat Nur-ol-Eyn that is presently mounted in Tiara No. 2 displayed in Case 26.